••^^•^••^w ' '



































THE CHIMPANZEE (AntkropopUktcMs trogto- **•) . ....

THE GORILLA (AntkropopMtau gorilla) .

THE ORANG-UTAN (Simia satyna) .

THE HOOLOCK (Hytobalts kooloc*) .

THE LUNCOOR (Strnnop^Jktcus tnttlhu)

THE GUEREZA (Colobus gutrtta) . .

THK BUNDER (.Vacacia rtesus) . .

THE DIANA MONKEY (Ctnopittttcus diana)


THE MANDRILL (Cynoctpkalus mormon) .

THE RED-PACED SPIDER MONKEY (Abbs faniscta) .....


THE BROWN CAPUCHIN (Ctbtts fatutllus) .

THE RED HOWLER (Mytttts seniculus)






THE LION MARMOSET (Midas rosaha)

THE RUFFED LEMUR (Lemur varius)







THE LION (Ftlis Ito) ....

THE TIGER (Ftlis tigris) ....

THE LEOPARD (Ftlis pardus) . . .

THE PUMA (Ftlis conechr) . . .

THE OUNCE (Ftlis undo) . . .

THE JAGUAR (Ftlis onca) ...

THE CLOUDED LEOPARD (Ftlis ntbulosa) .

THE OCELOT (Ftlis pardalu) .

THE SF.RVAL (FtKs strval) . . .

THE WILD CAT (Ftlis catus) . . ;

THE LYNX (Ftlis fynx) .

THE CARACAL (Ftlis cornea!) . .

THE CHEETAH (Cynalums jubatus] . .

THE CIVET (Vivtrra dvtiia) . .











37 39 4i 45 47 47 48 48 49 53 55 55 55 56 56 56 57 61

65 69

73 74 77 78 79



«3 85 89 90



THE WATER-CIVET (Cynogalt btumttii) .

THE FOSSA (Cryptoprocta ftrox)




ickntutnon) ..... THK MEERKAT (Suricala tttradaclyla) THE STRIPED HY^CNA (Hyena striata) . THE BROWN HYJENA (Hyana bruwtta) . THE SPOTTED HYXNA (Hyama crocuta) . THE AARD-WOLF (Proltlts cristatus) THE WOLF (Cam's lupus) THE COYOTE (Cams latrans) . THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL (Cants mtso-

mtlas) ......

THE INDIAN JACKAL (Cams aurrus) THE DINGO (Cams dingo) . THE MANED WOLF (Cants jttlxiius) . THE Fox (Cants vuipts) . . . .'

Tux ARCTIC Fox (Cams lagopus) .

THE FENNEC (Cants ctrdo)

THE DHOLE (Cyan dultkuntnsis)

THE HUNTING-DOG (tycoon pietus)

THE RACCOON-DOG (Canis procyonoidts) .

THE SABLE (Mttsitla tibtUina)


THK POLECAT (Afusitla puiorius)

THE STOAT OR ERMINE (MusUla trminta)

THK WEASEL (Musttla vulgaris)

THK GLUTTON (Gulo lusnu) .

THK TAYRA (Galiclis barbara) . . ' .'

THE GRISON (GalicKs vittato) . .

THK BADGER (MtUs taxus) . .



THE HOG-BADGER (Arclonyx collaris)


THK SKUNK (Mtpkitis mtpkitica) . . THE SOUTHERN SKUNK (Contpaius mapu-


THK SMALL SKUNK (Sptiogalt putoritu) . THE ZORILLAS

9' 9*


95 96

97 98

99 too





107 1 08 109







"9 119

130 110 ISI

"3 i»3


117 "7





THE TELEDU (Mydaus meliceps) . . 132 THE OTTER (Lutra vulgaris) . . .133 THE SEA-OTTER (Latax lutris) . .136 THE WHITE-NOSED COATI (Nasua narica) 137 THE RACCOON (Procyon lotor) . . .138 THE KINKAJOU (Cercoleptes caudivolvulus) 139 THE CACOMISTLE (Bassaris astuta) . .140 THE PANDA (AZlurus fulgens) . . . 140 THE POLAR BEAR (Ursus maritimus) . 141 THE PIED BEAR (&luropus melanoleucus) 144 THE BLUE BEAR (Ursus pruinosus) . ' . 144 THE BROWN BEAR (Ursus arctos) . . 145 THE GRIZZLY BEAR (Ursus Jtorribilis) . 148 THE SLOTH BEAR (Meiursus ursinus) . 149 THE HIMALAYAN BEAR (Ursus tibelanus) 151 THE JAPANESE BEAR (Ursus japonicus) . 151 THE AMERICAN BLACK BEAR (Ursus

americanus) . . . . .151 THE MALAYAN BEAR (Ursus malayanus) . 152 THE SPECTACLED BEAR (Urstts omatus) . 152 THE CALIFORNIAN SEA-LION (Otaria cali-

fortiiana . . . . . .153

THE WALRUS ( Trichechus rosmarus) . 157 THE COMMON SEAL (Phoca vitulina) . 161 THE GREY SEAL (Halichcerus grypus) . 163 THE RINGED SEAL (Phoca hispida) . .163 THE HARP SEAL (Phoca groenlandica) . 163 THE BLADDERNOSE (Cystophora cristata) . 1 64 THE SEA-ELEPHANT (Macrorhinus leoninus) 164 THE HEDGEHOG (Erinaceus europceus) , 165 THE MOLE (Talpa europcea) . . .167 THE STAR-NOSED MOLE (Concfylura cristata) 168 THE DESMAN (Myogale tnoschata) . .168 THE GOLDEN - TAILED TUPAIA (Tupaia

chrysura) . . . . . . 169


THE COMMON SHREW (Sorex araneus) . 170 THE PIGMY SHREW (Sorex minutus) . 1 70 THK WATER SHREW (Ntomys fodiens) . 171 THE MUSK SHREW (Crocidura carulescens] 171 THE ELEPHANT SHREWS . . .171 THE OTTER SHREW (Potamogate velox) . 171 THE TENREC (Centetes ecaudatus) . . 17 a THE ALMIQUI (Solenodon cubanus) . .172 THE GOLDEN MOLES . . . .17* THE COBEGO (Galeopithecus volans) . . 173 THE INDIAN FLYING - Fox (Ptiropus

mtdius) 177

THE VAMPIRK (Dtsmodus ru/us) . . 181 THE INDIAN VAMPIRE (Mtgaderma fyra) . 1 83


THE FISHING BAT (Noctilio leporinus) . 183 THE RAT-TAILED BAT (Rhinopoma micro-

phylhtm) tgj

THE PIPISTRELLE (Vespewgo pipistrellus) 184 THE NOCTULE (Vesptrugo noctula] . .184 THE LONG-EARED BAT (Plecotus auritus} . 1 84 THE BEAVER (Castor fiber) . , .185 THE INDIAN STRIPED SQUIRREL (Sciurus

palmarum) . . . . .189 THE COMMON SQUIRREL (Sciurus vulgaris) 190 THE FLYING-SQUIRRELS . . .191

THE GROUND-SQUIRRELS . . .191 THE MARMOTS ..... 192 THE SCALY-TAILED SQUIRRELS . . 192 THE MUSQUASH (Fiber eibethicus) . .193 THE LEMMING (Myodes lemmus) . .194 THE ARCTIC LEMMING (Cuniculus tor-

quatus) . . . . . .195

THE FIELD- VOLE (Arvicola agrestis) . 196 THE WATER-VOLE (Arvicola amphibius) . 196 THE HAMSTER (Cricetus frumentarius) . 197 THE HOUSE- MOUSE (Mus tnusculus) . 1 99 THE WOOD - MOUSE OR LONG-TAILED

FIELD-MOUSE (Mus sylvaticus) . . 1 99 THE HARVEST- MOUSE (Mus minutus) . 199 THE HOUSE-RAT (Mus rattus) . .200 THE SEWER-RAT (Mus decumanus) . .200 THE SPRING-HAAS (Pedetes coffer) . .201 THE JERBOAS . . . .202





THE COYPU (Myopotamus coypus) . .204 THE COMMON PORCUPINE (Hystrix cristata) 205 THE BRUSH-TAILED PORCUPINES . .206 THE CANADIAN PORCUPINE (Erethieon

dorsatus) . . . . .207

THE COUENDOU (Synetheres prehensilis') . 208 THE VIZCACHA (Lagostomus trichodactylus') 209 THE CHINCHILLA (Chinchilla lanigera) . 211 THE LONG-TAILED CHINCHILLA (Lagidium

cuvieri) . . . . . .212

THE CAPYBARA (Hydrocharus capybara) . 213 THK PATAGONIAN CAVY (DoKchotis pata-

ckonica) . . . . . .214

THE GuiNKA-PlG (Cavia porcellus) . . 214


THE PACA (Coclogenys paca) . . . 215 THE TAILED PACA (Dinomys branicki) . 216


CHIMPANZEE (Antkrofopilktciu trogbaytts) .... Frotttispitft

MALE GORILLA (Antkropopitfncns goriiia) . . . Tofattpagt 4

ORANC.-UTANS (Simia tatyrus) ..... M n 8

HOOLOCKS (Hyhbatis hoolock) ..... it

LUNGOORS (Stmnopilktcus tttttlhts) . . . . 16

BRUSH-TAILED GUKREZA (Coiobus gmrua) . . . «o

BUNDERS (Macatus rJusus) . . . . . 24

DIANA MONKEYS (Ctrcopithtcus diana) . . . . ,, 28

MANDRILLS (Cyntxtfkalus mormon) . . . . 3*

RED-FACED SPIDER MONKEYS (AUlts painsna) . . . 3*

BROWN CAPUCHINS (Ctbus Jattullus) . . . . 40

RED HOWLERS (ifycttu ttnicuJus) . . . . 44

LION MARMOSET (Midas rosolio) . , I . 48

RUFFED LEMUR (Lmiur voriua) . . ... »

LION AND LIONESS (Ftiw Uo) . . . . . 56

TIGER (FtKs tigru) ...... 60

LEOPARDS (Ftiu ponfus) AND SPOTTED DEER (Ctrvus axis) . 64

PUMA (Ftlis cotKolor) ...... 68

OUNCE (FtOs undo) ...... 71

CLOUDED LEOPARD (Fihs tubutesa) . . . . 76

LYNXES (Ft/a fynx) ...... So

CHEETAH (Cynalurus jubatus) ..... 84

AFRICAN CIVET (Vtvtrra civttta) . . . . 88

INDIAN GREY MONGOOSE (Htrptsbs griseus) . . . ,, ,, 92

STRIPED HY.CNA (Hytma striata) . . . . 96

WOLVES (Cants lupus) ...... 100

BLACK- BACKED JACKALS (Cam's nusomttas) . . . 104

VIXEN AND CUBS (Cams vuifts) .... 108

DHOLES (Cyo* duklmmtnsis) . . . . . ,,,,11*

SABLES (Musttlla tibtlKtta) . . . , . 116

GLUTTON (Guio luscus) ...... no

BADGER (Miles taxus) . . , . . . 1 94

SKUNKS (Mtphitu mtphitica) . . . . . 128

OTTER (Lutra vulgaris) . , . . . - . 132

WHITE-NOSED COATIMONDIS (A^astM narico) . . > . 136



POLAR BEAR AND CUBS (Ursus maritimus) . . To face page 140

BROWN BEAR (Ursus arctos) ..... MM J44

SLOTH BEAR (Melursus ursinus') ..... » » *48

CALIFORNIAN SEA-LION (Otaria califortiiana) . . .

WALRUS ( Trichechus rosmarus) . . » »

SEAL (COMMON) (Phoca vilulina) . . . . on1"0

HEDGEHOG (Erinaceus europ&us) . . . » » I"4

TUPAIA (Tupaia chrysura) .... » >. l68

COBEGO (Galeopithecus volans) . . . » » J72

FLYING-FOX (Pleropus tnedius) . . . . >,.. Z7°

VAMPIRE (Desmodus rufus) . » »

BEAVER (Castor fiber) ... » »

INDIAN STRIPED SQUIRREL (Sciurus palmarum) ... » »

MUSQUASH (Fiber zibethiats) . » »

HAMSTER (Cricetus frumentarius) . » *

SPRING-HAAS (Pedetes coffer) . » »

PORCUPINE (Hystrix cristata) . MM

VIZCACHA (Lagostomus trichodactylus) . . » »

CAPYBARA (Hydrochaerus capybara) .... » »



{AnthropopithtcHS troglodytes)

TAKING it all round, from youth to old age, in appearance and behaviour, the Chimpanzee is the most nearly human of all beasts, and, as it is the hardiest of all man-like apes, and therefore the most familiar in captivity, it is the best known of all of them by sight, though hardly rivalling its formidable relative, the Gorilla, in reputation in the popular mind.

It will be noticed in the illustration that the arms of the creature, as in all apes, are very long, reaching, indeed, below the knee when it stands erect; but they are shorter, and therefore more human, than in any other ape ; while the legs, though shorter proportionately than in Man and the Gorilla, are longer than in the Orang. The big ears of the Chimpanzee contrast with the small, refined-looking ones of the latter apes ; but as the size of the ears varies much in Man, this is not a very important point. The sex difference in the face of the Chim- panzee is not notable, nor is there much difference in size between the sexes, although the male is the larger, attaining a height of more than four feet. He also has more powerful teeth.

There is, however, much diversity in Chimpanzees, both individual and racial ; each seems to have a different face, though all preserve the same general "caricature Irishman" type, and the complexion may vary from dirty flesh-colour to black, many having mottled faces. The coat, though always long and generally black, also shows much diver- sity, some individuals being nearly as shaggy as bears, while others are scantily clad, especially on the head. The celebrated "Sally," formerly at the London Zoological Gardens, belonged to a black-faced,


bald-headed variety, which has generally been ranked as a distinct species, the Bald Chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus calvus).

Local racial distinctions do undoubtedly exist, but, in view of the great amount of variation, it seems best to regard all Chimpanzees as forming members of one species ; none of them, at all events, could be mistaken for any other ape.

The home of this animal is the forest region of Tropical Central Africa from Uganda westwards ; most of the specimens seen in Europe, however, have come from Loango and the Gaboon. Here the Chimpanzees live in small bands of from five to ten, and spend much of their time on the ground, though often ascending trees to gather wild fruit, on which, with other vegetable produce, they subsist. As some specimens show a liking for animal food Sally, for instance, would even kill and eat pigeons and rats they no doubt, like most of the monkey tribe, are not by any means strict vegetarians.

The gait of these apes, although fairly rapid, is awkward-looking ; they go on all fours, doubling under the first two joints of the fingers of the hand, so that in front they rest upon their knuckles. They can stand and walk erect, but do not do so much as a rule, although a little female, Daisy, formerly in the Zoo, was much in the habit of acting the biped, clasping a duster over her stomach with her hands meanwhile.

Being powerful animals even the female being a match for a strong man they probably have hardly any enemies to flee from, with the exception of the Leopard ; and even he might think twice before attacking an adult, let alone a party of them.

The young Chimpanzee at birth clings closely to its mother, and is thus carried about, after the fashion of monkeys generally. At night its mother takes it to bed in a tree, where a nest or platform of twigs, &c., has been built ; for the construction of this a low elevation is preferred, no doubt for the sake of shelter from the wind.

Occasionally they are said to associate in large bands, and to indulge in a sort of concert, accompanying their howls and yells by drumming with sticks on hollow logs : this is very probably correct, as many animals take a pleasure in making noises by any means in their power.


The Chimpanzees exhibited in zoological collections have almost always been brought over as quite young animals ; they are undeniably delicate, but far less so than the other great apes, and I have recently heard of a case in which one has been successfully kept all through the winter in an outdoor house without artificial heat.

\\ hat they undoubtedly require, when small at all events, is plenty of petting and attention ; and they prove decidedly more " reasonable," if the expression may be used, than Orangs or Gorillas, not even object- ing to correction when they have deserved it which is pretty often the case, as they are, as one might expect, full of mischief and often very spiteful. When angry they strike with their hands and bite severely. They have a great variety of notes and calls, one very usually heard being a sort of repeated hoot uttered with protruding lips, and accom- panied by frenzied dancing or jumping. In the wild state the uproar they create is most annoying at times.

Of course individuals vary a great deal in disposition and intelli- gence ; Sally was a good example of a clever specimen, while Mickey, an apparently dwarfed male, who is the senior Chimpanzee at the Zoo at the time of writing, having been there for ten years, is a kind, affectionate creature, good to smaller Chimpanzees, and tractable with his keeper, besides having a fair share of brains.

The most remarkable Chimpanzee I have seen, however, is one which was recently for some months in the possession of the well- known animal dealer, Mr. J. D. Hamlyn, who has made a specialty of anthropoid apes. This animal, Peter by name, was kept tied up in a living-room, but was often let out, and regularly had his meals with the family; and I have often had the pleasure of sitting at table with him. His behaviour was exactly that of a rather naughty child ; his owners assured me that he understood all that was said to him, and certainly his behaviour went far to bear out this statement. I have seen him, on being told to do so, fetch whisky and soda and pour out a "peg," bring his master's slippers and put them on, set up a chair he had pulled over, and so forth, besides coming at call and kissing.


He had, moreover, ideas of his own ; when given a note-book and a pencil, he would scribble on one page after another just as a child does, and he would steal any key he could get hold of and try to unlock the padlock of his chain with it. Another original idea of his was to get hold of a whip or a strap, and therewith thrash another Chimpanzee, Pat, of his own size, who, being spiteful, was always tied up. Peter tyrannised over Pat very much, tried to shut him in his box, and always kept him under whenever possible ; yet on occasion he would side with him.

Peter had previously been in a private owner's house for some months before he came into Mr. Hamlyn's possession; but a previous specimen Mr. Hamlyn had, Pansy, was trained on his premises throughout, and was as civilised in his behaviour as Peter, though not so widely accomplished. He met his death by taking a fatal chill, owing to a practice he had of taking a sponge and washing the stairs a proceeding in which, needless to say, he received no encouragement.

From instances like these, and other similar ones which have been recorded, it would seem that Chimpanzees when young could be well dealt with in much the same way as children, though their capricious disposition, and strength and ferocity when roused, always make re- straint desirable, and it would be absolutely necessary when the animals became fully adult.




{Antkropopitkecus gorilla)

WERE it not for our own existence on the earth, the Gorilla could claim to be the head of the animal kingdom, for he is by very far the most powerful of all apes, and we do not know that his intelligence is at all inferior to that of the Chimpanzee.

In general form he has much resemblance to that animal, but is more heavily built, with longer arms and legs ; the fingers and toes are, on the other hand, much shorter and thicker than the Chimpanzee's, the latter webbed at the base, while the whole hand and foot are broader. The eyebrow-ridges are very prominent in the Gorilla, especially in the male, whose skull also bears great central and lateral crests for the attachment of muscles.

The Gorilla has the face and skin all over the body black ; the coat, which is shorter, closer, and of a more woolly nature than the Chim- panzee's, is also black, but with a strong tendency to grey on the back, especially in advancing age, when it also is inclined to disappear on the chest and about the hips altogether. The crown of the head is commonly, but not always, covered with chestnut-red hair.

The female Gorilla attains about the same size as the male Chimpanzee, although stouter and more powerful, and chiefly differs in her prominent eyebrows and the other points above described ; but the adult male, as the illustration shows, has a very different and much more animal cast of face, the jaws becoming greatly developed ; in size also this sex far surpasses any other ape, male Gorillas of six feet in height being on record, while in breadth they much surpass a man of the same stature. The teeth, especially the canines, are very powerful. The young Gorilla, however, is more human-looking than the Chimpanzee, distinctly re- calling a badly-developed negro child in appearance, the resemblance being increased by the fact that the Gorilla more readily stands up and


walks on its hind legs, though its normal gait, like that of the other, is on all fours, with the ends of the fingers similarly bent under. The habit of beating the breast, so characteristic of the Gorilla, is already found in young animals, as is so commonly the case with animal peculiarities of behaviour thus, the young peacock spreads his little tail when he is only of the size of a partridge.

As in the case of the Chimpanzee, there is much local variation in Gorillas, and several races and sub-species have been named and de- scribed, though it is very doubtful if any of these possess full specific value.

The Gorilla inhabits part of the same region as the Chimpanzee, the great forest region of West Equatorial Africa ; but its range is not nearly so extensive, being confined to the district between the Cameroons and the Congo, and it is very rarely found near the coast.

It is a thoroughly forest-haunting animal, but, although a good climber, lives a good deal on the ground, and often makes its bed there, by breaking down and piling up stalks of plants into a mass about a foot thick. Its food is mainly vegetable, but it is said to be more carnivorous in its tastes than the Chimpanzee. Like that animal, it will raid the cultivated patches of the natives. Gorillas also live in smaller troops than Chimpanzees a male, female, and one or two young animals being all that are usually found together. The head of the family is said to sleep at the foot of a tree, while the weaker members of it sleep in a nest made in the branches ; for this species also builds nests in trees.

The old male Gorilla is, of course, a match for practically any animal, on account of his gigantic strength and huge teeth ; but he appears to avoid an encounter with man, although a terrible adversary when wounded. Old accounts, indeed, say otherwise, and it is quite pos- sible that solitary males, such as are found among most animals, may become fierce and dangerous ; for it is a well-known fact that the monkey tribe in general become morose and spiteful with advancing years, as indeed do a great number of animals, especially of the male sex, from grouse to men!


The Gorilla does not usually frequent the same parts of the forest as its smaller relative, and it is much rarer ; indeed, it has hardly ever been seen wild by Europeans. It also appears not to be very noisy, although the male roars as well as beats his breast when enraged. Alliances between the two great apes are said to occur at times, and it has been suggested that one or two doubtful specimens, notably one " Mafuka," a female exhibited in the Dresden Zoological Gardens in 1875, were hybrids between the Gorilla and Chimpanzee ; and, considering that the lower monkeys frequently produce hybrids in captivity, it would seem that this is quite possible.

The Gorilla is not only the most striking in appearance of all apes, but it has been known longer than any other ; that is, if the " Gorillas " described by Hanno the Carthaginian, in his voyage of discovery made in 470 B.C., really were animals of this species. What he says is, that in a bay called " The Horn of the South," on the West African Coast, he found an island containing a lake, in which was yet another island full of " hairy men and women," which his interpreters called Gorillas. These creatures were very active, and defended themselves by throwing stones ; three females were, however, captured, and, as they " refused to go quietly," were killed, and their skins brought to Carthage, where they were to be seen for centuries afterwards, for Pliny records that Roman invaders saw two of them at Carthage in the temple of Astarte, in 146 B.C. Doubt has been thrown on this account, and it has been suggested that the animals in question were Baboons, who are well known to defend themselves by stone-throwing.

But, as a matter of fact, any of the more intelligent monkeys will use missiles. Chimpanzees certainly do so in captivity; and the ancients, who knew the tailless monkey of North Africa, the so-called " Barbary Ape," quite well, were not likely to mistake the far less human-looking Baboons for hairy people ; while this is just the sort of mistake which is actually made by young children and primitive people about anthropoid apes to-day. At the same time, it must be admitted that Chimpanzees may be meant.

The next recorder of the Gorilla was an English sailor, Andrew


Battel, whose adventures in West Africa were given in " Purchas his Pilgrims," published in 1625; here are described two "monsters" found in the West African forests, as the "Pongo" and " Enjocko." His " Pongo" was evidently the Gorilla, the other ape being the Chimpanzee, still called '"Ntschego" by the natives, while the Gorilla is known as M'pungu.

The Gorilla is still a very little-known animal, however, and its delicacy has so far prevented us from gaining much knowledge of its habits even in captivity, for it is difficult to keep alive even in its own country, and the few individuals, all young, which have been exhibited in Europe have seldom lived even for a year. Several have been exhibited in our own Zoological Gardens, but the first one brought to England was one for some time exhibited in a travelling menagerie as a Chimpanzee 1 The Gorilla which so far has done best in captivity is one which lived in the Berlin Aquarium, and had been carefully looked after in West Africa for some time before he reached that institution. He was allowed a good deal of liberty, had his meals at table and behaved well, and showed much affection for his human friends, though rather mischievous. In fact, his manners appear to have been much the same as those of the Chimpanzees treated in the same way, which I have been able, as previously remarked, to observe.

The Gorilla is, however, undoubtedly not only more delicate than the Chimpanzee, but is generally, at any rate, quite different in temperament, being fiercer, and at the same time more nervous and sensitive, so that it is always likely to require greater care in its management. I was par- ticularly struck by the human way in which a female imported by Mr. Harnlyn the largest which has reached England alive so far covered her face with handfuls of hay held up to it when looked at in her travel- ling cage, and then struck the bars furiously if the inspection were perse- vered in. Such an animal as this needs very considerate handling, but the obstacles to its successful treatment ought not to be insuperable.

ORANG-UTANS By Louii A. Sargent


(Simia sa/yrus)

THIS, the third and last of the great man-like apes, is found far away from the African home of the Gorilla and Chimpanzee in Borneo and Sumatra ; where, by the way, there occur other animals with near African relatives. It differs from the other two not only in the red colour of its hair, but equally remarkably in its shape, which departs much further from the human form ; the arms in the Orang being so long as to reach the ground when the creature stands erect, and the legs being very short, while the body is also very short and round. The fingers and toes are very long, with the exception of the thumb and great toe, which are very small indeed, and often minus the last joint. The colour of the coat, the hair of which is particularly long and lank, varies from almost chocolate to a bright auburn, and, as in the Chimpanzee, there is a great amount of variation in its abundance and in the colour of the skin, many Orangs being but scantily furnished with hair, and dark in the face and skin, while in the ordinary type the face is mostly dirty flesh-colour, and the hair abundant.

There is as great a difference in the sexes as in the case of the Gorilla, the male, which is much the larger, having particularly big canine teeth, and, in many instances, developing a fatty expansion of the cheeks which makes the face peculiarly broad. Such individuals, however, occur side by side with those of the ordinary type. The goitred appearance of the neck is due to a large vocal sac. The ears of the Orang are small and delicate, and its general expression much more pleasing and refined if one can apply the term to any of these creatures than in the other two. In height the male reaches four or five feet, when erect, but this animal very seldom stands upright on the ground, and indeed seldom comes there at all ; when it does, it walks, like the others, on the knuckles and feet. It is, however, essenti-

* B


ally a tree animal ; and, although very slow in its movements compared to the Chimpanzee, and not given to jumping, gets along at such a pace by swinging itself with its long powerful arms, that it is often all a man can do to follow it on the ground. Like the Chimpanzee, it builds a platform nest of boughs to rest and sleep in, constructing a fresh one every two or three nights.

Its food consists of wild fruits, leaves, and so forth, and it is especi- ally fond of the large spiny fruit of the Durian (Durio zibethimis), that East Indian fruit which has long been celebrated for the unequalled delightfulness of its flavour and the singular and penetrating vileness of its smell. In search of this it will at times approach human habitations, but usually lives far away from these, and often in flooded forests, which is the more remarkable, as it is quite unable to swim at least this was the case with a specimen observed by Mr. W. Hornaday.

In its native haunts it has but few enemies; it is said to be occa- sionally attacked by the Crocodile or the Python, but to be able to give a good account of itself with either of them, jumping on the. back of the former and wrenching its jaws asunder, and disabling the great snake with its powerful bite.

Against man it also makes a vigorous defence, seizing its adversary and biting him severely ; cases have been known in which the victim has escaped with the loss of the ends of his fingers, which were bitten off by the infuriated ape. In this manner also they attack each other, and specimens with mutilated fingers are frequently met with.

The Orang, although not a ferocious animal, is less sociable than the Gorilla and Chimpanzee, being usually found alone in the case of the male, though a female is commonly found accompanied by her young a baby in arms, and an elder one which is more or less inde- pendent. The infant Orang clings tightly to its mother's long hair, as usual in creatures of this kind. I have more than once seen quite small specimens which had been imported to Calcutta, and these little things clung gladly to one ; it was pitiful to hear them cry when they were taken away.

In the ordinary way the Orang is a rather silent animal, its whole


character being quiet and self-contained compared with that of the Chimpanzee ; the adult, however, has a grunting note. It has long been known in captivity, and in my time was often brought to Cal- cutta, as it had been long previously, being a great object of interest to the natives of Bengal, who call it " Bun manus " jungle man, almost the same name as the Malay " Orang-utan " wild man. I have, indeed, been asked by a native woman at the Calcutta Zoo whether an Orang she and her husband were looking at was not a man, just as I have heard a little child hail Mickey, the Chimpanzee at the London Zoo, as " boy." The Dyak name of the animal is " Mias."

Even in the East, the Orang is a delicate animal in confinement, and it is, now at all events, less often to be met with in captivity than the Chimpanzee in Europe. It is a much less energetic and lively creature than that species, and this is, no doubt, one reason why it is not so easy to keep. It is also more sensitive ; when disappointed in anything as when food is offered and not given, or when its keeper leaves it, or it is put back into a cage after being out it will often roll about on the floor and scream with passion. There is, however, something very attractive about this animal, with its quiet, gentle ways, and humorous intellectual expression ; and it is undoubtedly capable of great attachment to its own kind, as was shown many years ago in the case of three specimens, a male, a female, and a young one, which were allowed liberty in India.

After some time the female fell ill and died, and her two companions showed the most touching grief; the young one wished to follow the body as it was carried away, and when prevented showed its vexation in the manner described above. The sorrow of the male, although they had never been very intimate, was deeper : he mounted to the top of their house, and remained for days gazing fixedly in the direc- tion in which he had seen the corpse of his companion taken away. Ultimately he came down dizzy and staggering with sunstroke, and before long he died also.

A good-sized female in the Calcutta Zoo in my time was very friendly with me, and would affectionately put her arm round my neck


through the cage bars, paying no attention to food offered her at the time by other visitors ; yet she took a malicious pleasure in grabbing little boys by the leg as they passed, and moped when part of the cage was wired up to prevent this amusement. I have seen her tear off about half of a native woman's linen shawl, and promptly cover her own head with it, to the great edification of its former owner, who laughed till she had to lean against a lady friend for support. This specimen did not live very long, and was found on her death to be grossly fat, but after this an outdoor extension was made to the Orang cage in this house, and when I left Calcutta a young pair had been thriving in it for some time. The male of these was decidedly inclined to be mischievous, and when exhibited in a climate like that of Calcutta, where temperature allows fresh air to be given, the Orang is certainly more cheerful and energetic than it appears over here, though, as above remarked, it cannot be called hardy even in the East.

The instinct of covering its head is very marked, and in the wild state the animal is said to cover itself over with large leaves when sleeping in its nest, should the weather be wet or chilly ; it is not an early riser, and goes to bed betimes, in conformity with its generally sluggish nature.

HOOLOCKS By Louii A. Sargent


(Hyiobates hoolock)

THE Hoolock is the best known of the group of small long-armed apes, known as Gibbons, which range through the hilly forest regions of Eastern Asia from Bhutan to Hainan and Java ; the present species, which is the most westerly in its range, extending east to Arracan.

The form of this creature is slender and graceful ; the bodily shape generally much resembles that of man, except for the great length of the arms, which allow the finger-tips to touch the ground when the animal stands erect ; the thumb and great toe are much larger than in the other apes. The Hoolock, however, approaches the lower monkeys in several anatomical characters, and in having, though only to a small extent, the bare callous patches on the seat so commonly found in them, but absent in the great anthropoid apes before dealt with. The canine teeth are long and slender in both sexes.

The coat is also composed of fur like a monkey's, rather than what \ve more usually distinguish as hair. It varies very remarkably in colour, the normal hue being black with a white band across the brow ; females, however, are usually brownish-black, and often not black at all, but pale straw colour, or pale above and brown below. The face, palms, and soles, however, are always black. In size the creature is small, only reaching a little over two feet in height.

The Hoolock resembles man very markedly in one particular, in that it is a true biped, running and walking on the hinder limbs alone, just like a human being; the long arms are often stated to be held up or forward when walking, but as I have seen the animal, it has done just as a man would do if his arms were of such great length slightly bent them so as to keep the hands clear of the ground. Although the gait is flat-footed and awkward, the creature is nimble enough, and gets along nearly as fast as a human being equally small could do.


In its natural state, however, the Gibbon can seldom come to the ground, as it is a thoroughly arboreal animal, travelling among the trees and bamboos by swinging itself along with its great arms. The beauty of its movements must be seen to be realised ; it is the champion gymnast of the animal kingdom, and one never tires of admiring the grace of its swinging leaps and the sureness of its hold, even in the confined limits of a menagerie. "Taking off" from one hand, it will throw itself half- a-dozen yards merely touch, as it seems, with the other hand, swing off again, and so on for an hour at a time. Its powers are seen at their best when a troop is descending a hill-side clothed with bamboos, and it flings itself from one bending stem to another lower down, thus getting down-hill at a marvellous pace. They also ascend very rapidly, and from the hilly nature of their haunts have to go up and down a great deal, especially as, in many cases, they retire to the low warm valleys to sleep, and come uphill in the morning to feed. They do not build nests like the great apes, simply roosting on the boughs like ordinary monkeys, none of which have any notion of nest-building.

Their food consists not only of leaves, shoots, wild fruit, and so forth, but also to a great extent of insects, spiders, the eggs of small birds, and even the birds themselves. These may be even captured on the wing at times, for a specimen of the allied Silvery Gibbon (Hylobates leuciscus) in captivity has been seen to take a flying bird with one hand as she swung from one perch to another, her landing not being in the least disturbed by the feat performed en route.

Water is drunk by the Hoolock in rather a peculiar way; it dips its hand in, and licks off the drops, often sliding down a bough to do this. This way of drinking is characteristic of Gibbons generally ; but the animal also drinks by putting down its mouth in the ordinary way. An early observer records, by the way, that he has seen the female of some Gibbon take her young one to the water and wash its face, in spite of its fractious objections to the process. The young are habitually carried clinging to the parent, maintaining their hold securely during all its gymnastic performances.

The Hoolock appears to be quite unable to swim ; when in deep


water it throws its arms up and struggles helplessly, just like a human being who has no knowledge of swimming. As the Orang is also no swimmer, it is possible that the inability to swim applies to all these man-like apes. It may have something to do with the biped attitude, for many of the lower monkeys swim instinctively like other quadru- peds, using the "dog-stroke" like them.

One of the most notable peculiarities of the Hoolock is its call, which is a fine loud, clear, two-syllabled whoop, like "Whooko, Whooko," frequently repeated. It is generally ready to respond to an imitation of this note